书摘:《What I Wish I Knew When I Was 20》《Lucid Dreaming》《The E-Myth Revisited》《Professional Clojure》《上瘾五百年:烟、酒、咖啡和鸦片的历史》

What I Wish I Knew When I Was 20

problems can be solved if we give ourselves permission to look at them differently.
psychologist B. F. Skinner once wrote that all human behavior can be viewed as being adaptive to either the individual, the gene pool, or to society at large
it is better to know the few things that are really against the rules than to focus on the many things you think you should do.
the interesting things often occur when you are open to taking an unexpected turn, to trying something different, and when you are willing to question the rules others have made for you
They find ways to sway history, as opposed to waiting for history to sway them
to craft a résumé that summarizes all their biggest screwups—personal, professional, and academic
viewing experiences through the lens of failure forced them to come to terms with the mistakes they have made along the way
learning when to call it quits is crucial. You need to know when to stop pounding on an idea that isn’t working and when to move on to something new
the key to success is not dodging every bullet but being able to recover quickly
there appear to be five primary types of risks: physical, social, emotional, financial, and intellectual
Your company may fail, your product may fail, but you aren’t the failure.” Keep in mind that failure is a natural part of the learning process. If you aren’t failing sometimes, then you probably aren’t taking enough risks
We are all powerfully influenced by the messages around us. Some are direct, such as a teacher saying, “You should be a nurse,” or “You think like a scientist.” Others are embedded into our environment, such as years of seeing only female engineers or male surgeons.
the harder you work, the luckier you get
lucky people take advantage of chance occurrences that come their way
being observant, open-minded, friendly, and optimistic invites luck your way.
Keep in mind that everything someone does for you has an opportunity cost
every experience you have with someone else is like a drop of water falling into a pool
the most important outcome of any negotiation is to get to the next negotiation. we live in a very small world, where repeat appearances are the norm.
The best team players go to great lengths to make others successful. In fact, the higher you reach within an organization, the less important your individual contributions become. Instead, your job becomes leading, inspiring, and motivating others. Most of your work is done by colleagues tasked with implementing your ideas. Therefore, if you can’t work well with others, then your ability to execute diminishes. Successful team players understand what drives each person on the team and look for ways to make them successful. Additionally, great leaders figure out a way for everyone to play to his or her individual strengths.
Your actions always affect how others see you, and, as mentioned innumerable times now, you will likely bump into these same people again. If nothing else, you can be sure they will remember how you handled yourself.
going beyond minimum expectations and acknowledging that you are ultimately responsible for your actions and the resulting outcomes. Life isn’t a dress rehearsal, and you won’t get a second chance to do your best
give yourself permission to challenge assumptions, to look at the world with fresh eyes, to experiment, to fail, to plot your own course, and to test the limits of your abilities
They know they have permission—both explicit and implicit—to experiment, to fail, and to try again. What we must all recognize is that every one of us has the same permission—we just need to recognize that it’s ours to grant and not something extended from outside
most things in life, especially our failures, aren’t as important as we think they are at the time
uncertainty is the fire that sparks innovation and the engine that drives us forward

Lucid Dreaming

While asleep, we experience a period of REM sleep approximately every 90 minutes. It is during this time that we typically dream. These periods are initially very brief –only around 10 minutes. But as the night progresses, these periods become increasingly longer - often stretching to over 45 minutes at a time. Waking up in the midst of dreaming dramatically increases your ability to remember the details of the dream. Therefore, try setting an alarmclock to 4 , 6, or 7 hours after you normally fall asleep. This should awaken you directly from a dream.

The E-Myth Revisited

The problem with most failing businesses I’ve encountered is not that their owners don’t know enough about finance, marketing, management, and operations—they don’t, but those things are easy enough to learn—but that they spend their time and energy defending what they think they know.
Anthony Greenbank, who said in The Book of Survival, “To live through an impossible situation, you don’t need the reflexes of a Grand Prix driver, the muscles of a Hercules, the mind of an Einstein. You simply need to know what to do.”
That Fatal Assumption is: if you understand the technical work of a business, you understand a business that does that technical work.
it’s not the commodity or the work itself that is important. What’s important is the business: how it looks, how it acts, how it does what it is intended to do
most people who go into business don’t have a model of a business that works, but of work itself, a Technician’s Perspective, which differs from the Entrepreneurial Perspective in the following ways:
  • The Entrepreneurial Perspective asks the question: “How must the business work?” The Technician’s Perspective asks: “What work has to be done?”
  • The Entrepreneurial Perspective sees the business as a system for producing outside results—for the customer—resulting in profits. The Technician’s Perspective sees the business as a place in which people work to produce inside results—for The Technician—producing income.
  • The Entrepreneurial Perspective starts with a picture of a well-defined future, and then comes back to the present with the intention of changing it to match the vision. The Technician’s Perspective starts with the present, and then looks forward to an uncertain future with the hope of keeping it much like the present.
  • The Entrepreneurial Perspective envisions the business in its entirety, from which is derived its parts. The Technician’s Perspective envisions the business in parts, from which is constructed the whole.
  • The Entrepreneurial Perspective is an integrated vision of the world. The Technician’s Perspective is a fragmented vision of the world.
  • To The Entrepreneur, the present-day world is modeled after his vision. To The Technician, the future is modeled after the present-day world.
the purpose of your life is not to serve your business, but that the primary purpose of your business is to serve your life, you can then go to work on your business, rather than in it, with a full understanding of why it is absolutely necessary for you to do so
How can I create an expert system rather than hire one?
How can I create a business whose results are systems-dependent rather than people-dependent? Systems-dependent rather than expert-dependent
great businesses are not built by extraordinary people but by ordinary people doing extraordinary things.
Go to work on your business rather than in it.Go to work on your business as if it were the pre-production prototype of a mass-produceable product
Think of your business as anything but a job!
ask yourself the following questions:
  • How can I get my business to work, but without me?
  • How can I get my people to work, but without my constant interference?
  • How can I systematize my business in such a way that it could be replicated 5,000 times, so the 5,000th unit would run as smoothly as the first?
  • How can I own my business, and still be free of it?
  • How can I spend my time doing the work I love to do rather than the work I have to do?
Creativity thinks up new things. Innovation does new things
It should make things easier for you and your people in the operation of your business; otherwise it’s not Innovation but complication
And it is the obvious that must be addressed by Quantification at the outset of the Business Development Process
I believe it’s true that the difference between great people and everyone else is that great people create their lives actively, while everyone else is created by their lives, passively waiting to see where life takes them next
Until you lift the curtain, Sarah, until you dare to pull the mask off the world’s face, until you move beyond your Comfort Zone, you will never know what it is you were missing out there
At the beginning of your business, any standards are better than no standards
To become independent of them, rather than these roles becoming dependent on you
The most menial work can be a piece of art when done by an artist. So the job here is not outside of ourselves, but inside of ourselves. How we do our work becomes a mirror of how we are inside
If you can’t think of a good game, steal one. Anyone’s ideas are as good as your own. But once you steal somebody else’s game, learn it by heart. There’s nothing worse than pretending to play a game
the medium of communication became as important as the idea it was designed to communicate
to be present with the whole of ourselves in everything we do
Demographics and psychographics are the two essential pillars supporting a successful marketing program
Reality only exists in someone’s perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, conclusions—whatever you wish to call those positions of the mind from which all expectations arise—and nowhere else.So the famous dictum that says, “Find a need and fill it,” is inaccurate.It should say, “Find a perceived need and fill it
Women of a certain age, with a certain amount of education, with a certain size family, living in a certain geography, buy for very specific psychographic reasons
Inquiry, the active solicitation of specific information, and controlled experimentation replaced the guessing, blind hope, and feverish busy work that preceded them.
Because Comfort overtakes us all when we’re least prepared for it. Comfort makes cowards of us all
The world’s apparent chaos is only a reflection of our own inner turmoil.

Professional Clojure

The secret formula to using transients is: 1. Identify looping code that is using immutable datastructures. 2. Inside the scope of the function use a transient accumulator. 3. Change modifying functions to their transient equivalents.assoc!, conj!, ‘dissoc!’, ‘disj!’, ‘pop!’. 4. Persist before returning the result.


虽然香烟广受世人欢迎,但其主要刺激成分——尼古丁——却不是全球使用最广泛的瘾品,而是屈居第三位,排名第二者为酒精,榜首则是咖啡因。全世界的咖啡因消耗量大约是每人每天70毫克,有些国家(如瑞典、英国)每天的平均消费量还超过400毫克,相当于4杯咖啡。据人类学家尤金·安德森(Eugene Anderson)指出,世界上流行最广的名词(几乎每种语言都用得到)即4种含咖啡因植物的名称:咖啡、茶、可可、可乐。
哲学家埃里克·霍弗(Eric Hoffer, 1902~1983)说过,存心带头的人不可能造成群众运动,除非历史背景的时机已经成熟
经济史学家阿尔弗雷德·赖夫(Alfred Rive)曾经研究1860年至1900年的40年间英国人的烟草消费,他发现失业率从2%上升到10%,烟草消耗量只减了1%左右,足以证明这是无弹性需求
演化医学专家伦道夫·内瑟(Randolph Nesse)和乔治·威廉斯(George Williams)说:“人类千百年来努力要创造一个真正流出蜜与奶的环境,结果却发现许多现代病和过早死亡都该归咎于这个创造出来的成果。真是莫大的反讽。虽然反讽,也让胰岛素、动脉引流、抽脂手术、减肥药丸、跑步机、减肥餐的供应者赚到了钱。现代资本主义特有的催吐天才是:能教我们为了某一类产品或服务而违背自己的理智判断,然后再卖给我们另一批东西来应付已经造成的伤害,以便我们能够回过头来消费更多造成最初伤害的那些商品。评论家理查德·克莱因(Richard Klein)尖锐地指出,减肥是最炉火纯青的消费行为
托马斯·默顿修士(Thomas Merton)在1948年间就说过:“我们生活的这个社会,其运作的原则就是要挑动人体内的每根神经,并且让它们维持在最高度的人为紧张状态,要把人类的每个欲望逼到极限,并且尽量制造更多新的欲望与人造的渴求,为的是要用我们的工厂、出版社、电影公司以及所有其他从业者制造的产品来满足这些欲望和渴求。”这话说得完全对。瘾品制造者与多巴胺的关系就如同色情业者与睾丸素酮、食品销售者与味蕾、整形外科医生与异性追求的美丽外表的关系。这些人都以利益为目标,都能借科技之助启动人体内在的奖励和调节机制。这些机制是在与现今完全不同的环境条件下完成进化的,如此被牟利者利用,显然对生理上有害,在道德上也是一种颠覆。托马斯·默顿修士(Thomas Merton)在1948年间就说过:“我们生活的这个社会,其运作的原则就是要
小说家杰弗里·阿彻(Jeffrey Archer, 1940~)曾说:“人们把精力的作用低估了。有天赋又有精力,你能称王;有精力而没天赋,你可以称侯;有天赋而没精力,你只能做穷光蛋。
快速交通可能带来极恶劣的标准化发展”。他担心未来会是一个被北美洲消费模式操控的同质化世界,这套独霸的模式不容忍地域风俗,会颠覆部落固有传统,会破坏环境飞行家林白曾说:“民航飞机使世界上没有一个地方能躲过商业的蹂躏。” 林白并不因为自己缔造了航空史上的重要纪录而得意忘形,反而担心“快速交通可能带来极恶劣的标准化发展”。他担心未来会是一个被北美洲消费模式操控的同质化世界,这套独霸的模式不容忍地域风俗,会颠覆部落固有传统,会破坏环境。作家本杰明·巴伯(Benjamin Barber)将林白担忧的状况命名为“麦克世界”(McWorld)。
亚当·斯密(Adam Smith)以他一贯犀利的言辞指出:“购买走私货虽然是明显在助长违反税务法律的行为,也连带助长做伪证,但如果要在买私货上假装有所踌躇,在多数国家都会被视为伪君子的一种迂腐行径,不但不能取信于人,而且会让人怀疑这故作姿态的人骨子里比别人都坏